Monday, February 24, 2020
CEO of Continental Airlines - Larry Kellner - Research Paper Example development with the airline from joining to becoming CEO in December 2004 with particular reference to management style of the US airline, particularly in a tough market. It is submitted at the outset that KellnerÃ¢â¬â¢s management style at Continental Airlines highlights the importance of implementing an efficient interrelationship between creativity at business operational level, employee relations and customer relationship management (CRM). Accordingly, in Section 2 I shall firstly present a summary of KellnerÃ¢â¬â¢s career charting his graduation from South Carolina University to an exemplary career in private equity. This will be followed by a discussion of his eventual move to Continental Airlines and role in the continued growth of Continental Airlines and air transportation. In Section 3, I shall evaluate KellnerÃ¢â¬â¢s role and management philosophy in running Continental Airlines and how this has benefited the company in tough market conditions including increasing competition, personnel management and burgeoning oil prices. KellnerÃ¢â¬â¢s career in private equity and as business strategist has been prolific and the Business Week (2009) Executive Profile highlights the KellnerÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements as graduate from South Carolina University and recipient of the distinguished alumni award in 1998 (www.investing.businessweek.com). After graduating in a Bachelor of Science and Business administration degree, Kellner worked for and became Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer of the Koll Company followed by his appointment as Executive Vice President and Chief financial officer of American Savings Bank FA from November 1992 to May 1995 (www.investing.businessweek.com). Mr Kellner joined Continental Airlines in 1995 and became director in 2001, going onto replace Gordon Bethune as CEO in December 2004. Kellner recently announced his departure from Continental airlines; however his role at Continental has been heralded as being a prime example of successful
Friday, February 7, 2020
Computer laws in US. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act - Research Paper Example Just like any other invention, computers have two sides; the positive and the negative side. The positive side is where business flourish, scientists do more invention and government offer better services while on the other hand, it gives criminals an extra tool to commit more crimes and get away with it. Computer crimes have been on rapid increase since the advent of intern. Internet has facilitated the criminal activities as a means of access other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s computers regardless of geographical location. Crimes such as cyber-stalking, child pornography, fraud and scams, hacking copyright violations, malicious code are some of the computer crimes that are now easily committed because of the internet. Compute crimes are unavoidable to organizations that use IT in delivering their services and products. Computer professional therefore should ensure that there are frameworks put in place to protect and face these challenges through laws. This paper will identify and detail some o f the computer laws put in place by US federal legislation. Computer laws face greater challenge because of the dynamic nature of computer crimes because of the new and evolving technologies. The wire fraud statute was the first law in the US used to prosecute computer criminals. This law prohibited the use of communication wires that are used in the international commerce with an attempt to commit a fraud. This law is still in place and is used to date to prosecute computer criminals.... The challenges with the initial structure of CFAAA was that to successfully prosecute fraud charges, one must provide evidence that the suspect gained unauthorized access into the computer system (CFAA, 1986). Have a clause that touched on the method of entry into the computer system rather than focusing on the computer usage was a loophole for crimes committed by insiders. An employee within the company who has legal access to the computer can also commit a crime using the computer. Since it will not be proved that he/she had illegal access, then such person will not be prosecuted. CFAA was modified for the second time in 1994 so as to deal with the act of malicious code such as viruses, worms and other programs designed with an aim of changing or damaging data on the computer (Title 18 U.S.C section 1030). This amendments enhanced the law because initially it focused on the access to the computer system without looking at how the computer system was used. The law was now able to pr osecute those who executed illegal or malicious programs on computers with indention of causing damage to data or the computer. There are several acts that have been passed to add strength or deal with loopholes in CFAA. The National Information Act (NIIA) was enacted in 1996 to protect computer systems against those who access them using other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s authorization. Penalties under CFAA Offense Minimum sentence Maximum sentence Getting national security information 10 year 20 years Unauthorized access in government computer 1 year 10 years Knowing access and damage 1 year 10 years Knowing access and reckless damage 5 years 20 years Trafficking in passwords 1 year 10 years Extortion involving threats of damage computer 5 years 10 years Theofel v. Farey-Jones in 2003 is a
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Climate Change in Nigeria Essay Climate change has always occurred in different Nigeria; however the effects have become more noticeable recently over the years. The effects have affected the daily lives of many for better or worse. A peer reviewed research done by an unknown source, which was accepted by the Journal of Geography and Regional had concluded that the average temperature of Nigeria has increased by 1. 7Ã °C in the period of 1901-2005. The increase has however been higher in semi-arid areas and is lower in coastal regions. The paper has also shown that the rate of change has increased in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. The consequences of the increase in temperature have resulted into the desertification of the north as well as the coastal erosion in the south. A combination of overgrazing, abuse of woodland for fuel as well as the unreliable rainfall, the Sahara desert is advancing at an estimated rate of 600 metres each year. This means that an estimated 55 million or more would be affected in the northern states such as Sokoto. However in the south, increasing sea levels have threatened the coastal region. A given example is Bar Beach, Victoria Island, Lagos. Bar Beach, once a family spot for relaxation is currently under reconstruction after 100m of the shoreline had been eroded over the past 20 years. Lagos State also teamed up with Chagoury Group to build a 1km sea defence to prevent further damage. Another region is the Niger Delta, which is the source of NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s oil wealth but however is vulnerable to the flooding due to its low-lying terrain with criss-crossed waterways. The protective mangroves have also been reduced by a drastic amount due to human intervention. Many people may not know but half of the 15 million people in Lagos live less than 6 feet away above sea level. Also in the rural economy, most small farms always assume stable rainfall patterns for their time of seeds and planting. Therefore the Government strategies for poverty in semi arid areas in the north as well as arable regions are at risk due to the variation in the weather pattern. Due to awareness campaigns made by organizations such as NCF, Nigerians are able to relate the disturbing issues of very high temperature as well as the uncertain implication for disease carrying pest and insects. NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation to climate change has not received much funding from external bilateral or multilateral sources. This may be due to the NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s slow moving institutional response to climate change. However locally, adaptation strategies are consistent with existing responses to that of hunger and poverty. For example trees are being planted in order to stop desertification. The use of substitute fuels such as biogas is also being used as well as the adoption of more versatile livestock. In more conventional farming regions, they have been encouraged to diversify their corps and adopt more efficient rainwater harvesting and irrigation techniques. The coastal region has also approached climate change with better management of existing resources. A short film Water Runs Deep talks about the impact of climate change in Nigeria. It gives an insight on how climate change has affected the lives of many for the worst. The movie shows how crops have been destroyed by flooding as well as schools being ruined. Various interviews give tale of their hardship and how they cope with it as well as the predicted change in weather for Nigeria and how adaptation strategies have been used to help the rural communities cope with Climate Change. According to the 2010 MDG progress report, NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s forest cover has reduced from 18. 9% to 9. 9% in the last two decades. This is one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. The main reason for such is due to the high demand for wood fuel. In the absence of affordable alternative energy sources, charcoal is popular even in cities, which boosts its uncontrolled production
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Not many great novels were produced during the post World War II era. Perhaps the greatest novel published was J. D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the Rye. This book, just like all other great works, was met by scathing criticism and unyielding praise. Many literary critics marveled at SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s genius use of language to make Holden Caulfield, the main character, unbelievably realistic. Through HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and dialogues, Salinger successfully created a teenage boy. Because of that The Catcher in the Rye became one of the few great post World War II works. The language used in The Catcher in the Rye has been a topic of controversy in the literary criticÃ¢â¬â¢s realm. Holden CaulfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and comments serve to deepen his personality and provide entertainment. Salinger wanted to create a typical teenager but also wanted Holden to be an individual. Like most teenagers, Holden speaks in trite sentences however he also uses words in places that were then uncommon. Holden often leaves his sentences dangling with words like "and all" and "or anything." Often he uses those phrase to extend some indescribable emotion or action like "Ã¢â¬ ¦ how my parents were occupied and all before they had me" or "Ã¢â¬ ¦theyÃ¢â¬â¢re nice and all." But many times there is no significance at all to the expressions as in "Ã¢â¬ ¦was in the Revolutionary War and all," "It was December and all" and "Ã¢â¬ ¦no gloves or anything." (Salinger 5-7) Holden has many expressions which appear consistently throughout the novel. Some places, the expressions only serve to make Holden more realistic, other places Holden is trying to reinforce his values. Holden repeatedly comments on his hatred toward phonies. That is one thing that Holden hates more than almost anything. That could be the reason he frequently confirms a statement with "I really do," "It really does," or "if you want to know the truth." He also confirms comments by repeating them twice like "She likes me a lot. I mean sheÃ¢â¬â¢s quite fond of me." (Salinger 141) or "He was a very nervous guy- I mean a very nervous guy." (Salinger 165) He uses different phrases and styles to give a more factual backing to his comments, thus preventing himself from seeming like a phony. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s speech usually stays away vulgar and obscene. Whenever he says words like "ass," it is merely teenage vernacular for a part of the human anatomy. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say it to be offensive.
Monday, January 13, 2020
One of the goals of preschool education is to improve childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s school success. Early childhood educators need to enhance a childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental skills and knowledge. We are to build upon their ever growing need of curiosity and creativity. Without knowing what, why, and how to developmentally teach preschool children in an early childhood environment teachers will not have a great impact on the knowledge children will gain and retain in this environment. Children are eager to learn and acquire new life changing skills. The text (2008) emphasizes the importance of a child-centered curriculum that encompasses the whole child- physical, social, emotional, creative, and cognitive. Teachers practical knowledge of how and what to teach children is not taught in school. Teachers receive and understand the theoretical knowledge of children learning but they are unable to blend the theories with practical applications appropriate for young children. There are many preschool classrooms with qualified teachers but they do not understand the steps needed to provide a curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate. Most teachers have the book knowledge but their hands on and one on one skills are lacking when it comes to implementing activities to stimulate and excite children in learning. Kostelnik states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Teachers who lack adequate knowledge in any of these areas are hampered in their attempts to create developmentally appropriate programs for young children. The areas are: the fundamental components of early literacy and numeracy; how children experience literacy and mathematical concepts in their play; what teachers can do intentionally to support literacy and numeracy in all areas of the curriculum throughout the dayÃ¢â¬ . Teachers must know and understand a childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental needs and how to develop ways to meet these needs. Early childhood education recommends that programs utilize Developmentally Appropriate Practices. It is vital that young children have a curriculum that provides learning goals and guidance for teachers to develop activities and interactions. The National Association for the Education of Young Children approved the Early Childhood Standards and Accreditation Performance Standards and Accreditation Performance Criteria in 2005. These standards guide programs in a variety of areas including the curriculum (pp.232-233). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children have varied opportunities to be read books and to be read to in individualized ways. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children have activities that allow them to become familiar with print. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children are given opportunities to recognize and write letters, words, and sentences as they are ready. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Books are displayed and writing is encouraged in one or more areas of the classroom. Curriculum development should focus on promoting learning and development in the areas of social, emotional, physical, language, and cognitive growth (NAEYC Program Standards). There should be themes that are hands on and developmentally appropriate. Activities should include: art, math, science, social, studies, reading, and creativity. Classroom s should be filled with laughter and excitement. Hands on learning should take place, stories should be told, and play encouraged. Play is childÃ¢â¬â¢s work and when they enjoy what they are doing, then, they are more apt to learn, discover, and investigate their surroundings and environment. So how do we know that play is childÃ¢â¬â¢s work? This question and many more are answered when we look at research and theories of education. Theories are the foundation for which teachers choose to teach from. Theories help guide teachers in understanding the reason why they set up their classrooms and for carrying out the lessons they teach children on a daily basis. Theories teach us that relationships are the foundation for learning. We need to have relationship with the children we teach and with families of the children we provide a program for. Theories teach us that children learn through play and that they learn when they interact with their peers and their environment. There are many theories of learning to use to decide what type of curricula to useÃ Ã¢â¬ ¢ VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Constructivist theory- puts the learner in the center and believes that teachers should provide experiences that link prior knowledge to what they are studying. The constructivist teacher organizes the classroom with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of development in mind. Children learn when they collaborate with others, discussion and talking about the how and why of things. Ã¢â¬ ¢ PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Four Stages of Cognitive Development- learning is viewed as active, constructive process in which students seek organization and meaning in their worlds. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Abraham Maslow focused on human potential and proposed that all persons strive to reach the highest within them. His theory also asserts that children learn best when their physical needs are met and they feel a sense of psychological safety and security. Ã¢â¬ ¢ B. F. Skinner Behaviorist Theory emphasizes the roles of environmental conditions and overt behaviors in learning. Children learn through the effects of their own intentional responses. Consequences will determine whether a person will repeat a particular behavior that led to the consequences. Our theorists teach us that as children play they are learning about themselves, other people, and the world. As the text (2008) states, learning and development in the early years are critical to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s long term well-being. This theoretical base in early childhood education guides and provides a framework of understanding for how children learn. The text also states that, theoretically, there is widespread acceptance of the idea that play is important- that it is the serious business for the young child. Elkind reviewed a variety of theories that support the role of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play, including Montessori, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky. By taking these theories and putting them into perspective we provide ways to meet the differences and developing needs that children have. For children to excel and have success in school we have to address all areas of their development. Research has shown us that it is during these times of play that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain is affected. Connections are made as a child repeatedly does the same types of activities. If these connections are not made or used they will eventually disappear. Our text (2008) states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Play is a time where children needs are met. Good play experiences unite and blend all aspects of development, reaping social, emotional, physical, intellectual, moral, creative, and cultural benefits for young children. Ã¢â¬ As children engage in play in the early childhood classroom they are learning and growing developmentally. Age appropriate activities are provided for them. Vanderwater says that, Ã¢â¬Å"Play is simply shorthand for our capacity for curiosity, imagination, and fantasy Ã¢â¬â our creative dispositions. Ã¢â¬ In order for children benefit from play a curriculum is needed to meet their needs. It is important for young preschool children to have a curriculum that includes planned environments and activities in the classroom, such as music and creative movement, dramatic play, singing, and creative art. Planned and unplanned spontaneous learning should take place everyday. We know that children are unique and different therefore they all learn differently. With this knowledge we have to teach the whole child. This includes teaching social-emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development to preschoolers. Preschool curriculum models vary widely. Some may detail exactly what to teach and how to teach it with step by step instructions. Others on the other hand leave room for teacher ideas and input. Then there are some that provide guidance in developing activities and interactions that are crucial to social development. When choosing curricula, programs need to take into account childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ages, needs, behavior, language and cultural backgrounds. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialist in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE) therefore advise the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Curriculum is more than a collection of enjoyable activities. Curriculum is a complex idea containing multiple components such as goals, content, pedagogy, or instructional practices. Curriculum is influenced by many factors including societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values, content standards, account ability systems, research findings, community expectations, culture and language, and individual childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics. Ã¢â¬ The early childhood (preschool) classroom has a need for a developmentally appropriate curriculum. Designing a curriculum gives teachers the opportunity to come together and brainstorm on what is needed to meet the needs of individual children. Dodge states, Ã¢â¬Å"When teachers build curriculum with each other and with the children and are willing to really listen to each other and to the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, and really value them, there is a very different kind of relationship being established and a climate of mutual trust is formed. She also shares that, the nature of this relationship between teachers and children and parents would be very different in our opinion, if the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s plan were already written and all the planning spaces filled in, and all the outcomes predetermined and articulated ahead of time. Relationships again are the foundation that is needed in the early childhood classroom. Society has put a lot of pressure on early childhood programs to produce results. Kostelnik states that, kindergarten teachers report that one out of three children begin formal schooling lacking the basic experiences they need to succeed. Because of this, programs make decisions each day about the type of curriculum to use. They see the importance of early learning experiences that will build a firm foundation for learning and development later on in life. There are many types of curriculum in our society today. The two most commonly used in the Unites States according to Dodge are: The Creative Curriculum and High/Scope. In addition to these many directors used a variety of models and resources to supplement their planning. These include the Project Approach, Reggio Emilia, Montessori, and what several called Ã¢â¬Å"emergent curriculumÃ¢â¬ . There is evidence that high quality early childhood programs can and do make a difference in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Children can develop the skills they need as they participate in child care and other early learning programs from birth to age eight. Kostelnik states that children need to know the fundamental components of early literacy and numeracy for literacy involves listening, viewing, speaking, writing, and reading. Some of the numeracy components are: understanding number, how people represent number, the relations among numbers, and number systems, using mathematical tools, and recognizing, describing, and extending patterns. Literacy and numeracy can be displayed in the classroom when the dramatic play area has been transformed into a hairdressing shop. The children can create signs that say haircuts, shampoo, curlers, and perms. The children can also include prices on the signs. The children can move in and out of this area taking turns as customers, receptionist, haircutters, and cashiers. They will pretend cutting hair, giving permanents, making appointments, writing out receipts, using the play cash register, and making change. Literacy and numeracy is also seen in the block center as children make signs and count trucks, in the writing center as children write in their journals and in the art center as children draw and create pictures of their choice. Kostelnik tells us that, skilled teachers intentionally create opportunities for children to become engaged in varied literacy and numeracy experiences every day. Developmentally appropriate activities do not happen by chance, they have to be planned out. Children are looking for direction and opportunities to investigate. Teachers are being provided with training and professional development on how to teach, what to teach and why they need to follow a curriculum. As teachers gain the skills they need they begin to understand the developmental need s of children. They create opportunities for learning through play and they advocate for the needed changes in the system. As curriculum choices are being made and teachers are trained in how to implement the curriculum children are excelling. In an early childhood classroom teachers are better equipped and have a greater impact on what, why and how to teach children in a developmentally appropriate way. References: Eliason, C. F. , Jenkins, L. (2008). A Practical Guide to Early Childhood Curriculum (8th ed. ). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Dodge, D. (2004). Early Childhood Curriculum Models Why, What and the How Programs Use Them. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com Kostelnik. M (2008). Academics in Early Childhood. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE). (2003). Joint position statement on early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation building an effective, accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8. Washington, DC: NAEYC, p. 6 Vanderwater, E. A. , Rideoout, V. J. , Wartella, E. A. , Huang, X. , Lee, J. H. , Shim, M. S. (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Digital Childhood: Electronic Media and Technology Use Among Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers. Ã¢â¬ Pediatrics 119(5): e1006-e1015 [pic].
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Commercial Banking: Overview Commercial banks are in the business of providing banking services to individuals, small businesses and large organizations. While the banking sector has been consolidating, it is worth noting that far more people are employed in the commercial banking sector than any other part of the financial services industry. Jobs in banking can be exciting and offer excellent opportunities to learn about business, interact with people and build up a clientele. Today s commercial banks are more diverse than ever. You ll find a tremendous range of opportunities in commercial banking, starting at the branch level where you might start out as a teller to a wide variety of other services such as leasing, creditÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is great news for you if your thinking of going in to insurance. Jobs in insurance involve(( helping individuals and business manage risk to protect themselves from catastrophic losses and to anticipate potential risk problems. ))Work in this area is not only personally rewarding, but can be financially rewarding as well. You will help clients understand their insurance needs, explain their options to them and hopefully help them purchase appropriate insurance policies. You could work in a variety of areas in insurance including as an underwriter, a sales representative, an asset manager, a customer service rep or an actuary. A theme that is constantly emphasized by insurance professionals is that the industry is ultimately about helping people when they need it the most. The stereotype of a slick, sleazy, fast-talking insurance salesman is largely a figment of the past. Investment Banking: Overview Investment Banks help companies and governments issue securities, help investors purchase securities, manage financial assets, trade securities and provide financial advice. The leading investment banks including Merrill Lynch, Salomon Smith Barney, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter and Goldman Sachs are said to be in the lt;igt;bulge bracketlt;/igt;. Other investment banks are regionally oriented or situated in the middle market (e.g. Piper Jaffray). 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Friday, December 27, 2019
In Of the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche sought to provide context for what he saw as the central value system of the society in which he lived: slave-morality. Nietzsche saw morality as reflective of the conditions in which its proponents were brought up. He saw the roots of slave morality in oppression and slavery, and posits that it grew as a reaction to the morality of the masters of the time. What follows is a simplified account of NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s master-slave dichotomy, and what he saw as the dire consequences for human progress should the pervasiveness of slave morality be allowed to remain at the expense of the master. I will argue that although religion and slave morality may have had significant influence in NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s day, hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In contrast to the consequentialism of master morality, slave morality can be seen as a deontological morality. It determines an actionÃ¢â¬â¢s goodness by looking at the actorÃ¢â¬â¢s intention: to slave moralists, the ends do not, necessarily, justify the means. The nature of acts and their actors plays an important role in NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of morality. Slaves believe in and strive for freedom and see evil in the mastersÃ¢â¬â¢ oppression of them, as they believe they perform these acts of oppression of their own free will. They believe that, because the masters are free agents, they should be held responsible for their actions and criticized for them. Nietzsche disputes this view, and demonstrates his argument using the analogy of the eagles and the lambs: Ã¢â¬Å"That lambs dislike great birds of prey does not seem strange: only it gives no ground for reproaching these birds of prey for bearing off little lambs. And if the lambs say among themselves: these birds of prey are evil; and whoever is least like a bird of prey, but rather its opposite, a lamb - would he not be good? there is no reason to find fault with this institution of an ideal, except perhaps that birds of prey might view it a little ironically and say Ã¢â¬Ëwe donÃ¢â¬â¢t dislike them at all, these good little lambs; we even love them: nothing is more tastyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ .